Proton resonance frequency shift thermometry: A review of modern clinical practices
Kraśny, Marcin J.
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Blackwell, James, Kraśny, Marcin J., O'Brien, Aoife, Ashkan, Keyoumars, Galligan, Josette, Destrade, Michel, & Colgan, Niall. Proton Resonance Frequency Shift Thermometry: A Review of Modern Clinical Practices. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27446
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a popular modality in guiding minimally invasive thermal therapies, due to its advanced, nonionizing, imaging capabilities and its ability to record changes in temperature. A variety of MR thermometry techniques have been developed over the years, and proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift thermometry is the current clinical gold standard to treat a variety of cancers. It is used extensively to guide hyperthermic thermal ablation techniques such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT). Essential attributes of PRF shift thermometry include excellent linearity with temperature, good sensitivity, and independence from tissue type. This noninvasive temperature mapping method gives accurate quantitative measures of the temperature evolution inside biological tissues. In this review, the current status and new developments in the fields of MR-guided HIFU and LITT are presented with an emphasis on breast, prostate, bone, uterine, and brain treatments.Level of Evidence 5Technical Efficacy Stage 3