Group follow-up compared to individual clinic visits after structured education for type 1 diabetes: A cluster randomised controlled trial
O'Hara, Mary Clare
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Dinneen SF, O'Hara MC, Byrne M, Smith D, Courtney CH, McGurk C, Heller SR, Newell J, Coffey N, Breen C, O'Scannail M, O'Shea D, for the Irish DAFNE Study Group (2013) 'Group follow-up compared to individual clinic visits after structured education for type 1 diabetes: A cluster randomised controlled trial'. Diabetes Research And Clinical Practice, 100 (1):29-38.
Aim - To compare the effectiveness of group follow-up with individual follow-up after participation in the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) structured education programme. Methods - Cluster randomised controlled trial involving 437 adults with type 1 diabetes attending hospital diabetes clinics in Ireland. All participants received DAFNE at baseline. Intervention arm participants received 2 group education sessions post-DAFNE and did not attend clinics. Control arm participants received 2 one-to-one clinic visits post-DAFNE. Results - We observed no significant difference in the primary outcome (change in HbA1c) at 18 months follow-up (mean difference 0.14%; 95% CI ¿0.33 to 0.61; p = 0.47). Secondary outcomes, including rates of severe hypoglycaemia, anxiety, depression, the burden of living with diabetes and quality of life did not differ between groups. Mean level of HbA1c for the entire sample (regardless of treatment arm) did not change between baseline and 18 month follow-up (p = 0.09), but rates of severe hypoglycaemia, diabetes related hospital attendance, levels of anxiety, depression, the burden of living with diabetes, quality of life and treatment satisfaction all significantly improved. Conclusions - Our data suggest that group follow-up as the sole means of follow-up after structured education for individuals with type 1 diabetes is as effective as a return to one-to-one clinic visits.