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HSP72 Protects Cells from ER Stress-induced Apoptosis via Enhancement of IRE1¿-XBP1 Signaling through a Physical Interaction
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a feature of secretory cells and of many diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Adaptation to ER stress depends on the activation of a signal transduction pathway ...
Mechanisms of ER Stress-Mediated Mitochondrial Membrane Permeabilization
During apoptosis, the process of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) represents a point-of-no-return as it commits the cell to death. Here we have assessed the role of caspases, Bcl-2 family members and ...
Methods for Monitoring Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and the Unfolded Protein Response
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of folding of membrane and secreted proteins in the cell. Physiological or pathological processes that disturb protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum cause ER stress and ...