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dc.contributor.authorMorley, Terry R.
dc.contributor.authorReeve, Andrew S.
dc.contributor.authorCalhoun, Aram J. K.
dc.identifier.citationMorley, T. R., Reeve, A. S. and Calhoun, A. J.K. (2011), The Role of Headwater Wetlands in Altering Streamflow and Chemistry in a Maine, USA Catchment1. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 47: 337–349. doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00519.xen_IE
dc.description.abstractHeadwater wetlands, including hillside seeps, may contribute to downstream systems disproportionately to their relatively small size. We quantified the hydrology and chemistry of headwater wetlands in a central Maine, USA, catchment from 2003 to 2005 to determine their role in maintaining headwater streamflow and in affecting stream chemistry. A few of these headwater wetlands, commonly referred to as seeps, were characterized by relatively high groundwater discharge. During summer base flow, seeps were the primary source of surface water to the stream, contributing between 40 and 80% of stream water. Comparisons of groundwater and surface water dominant ion chemistry revealed only slight differences at the bedrock interface; however, significant changes occurred at the shallow groundwater-surface water interface where we found decreases in total and individual cation concentrations with decreasing depth. Seep outflows significantly increased total cation and calcium concentrations in streams. Outflows at two seeps produced relatively high nitrate concentrations (88 ± 15 and 93 ± 15 μg/l respectively), yet did not correspond to higher nitrate in stream water below seep outflows (2 ± 1 μg/l). We demonstrate that small wetlands (< 1,335 m2) can contribute to headwater stream processes by linking groundwater and surface-water systems, increasing the duration and magnitude of stream discharge, and by affecting stream chemistry, particularly during periods of base flow.en_IE
dc.description.sponsorshipWater Resources Research Institute and the Environmental Protection Agency 104(b)(3). The Maine Outdoor Heritage Fund and the Department of Plant, Soil, and Environmental Sciences at the University of Maine provided additional support.en_IE
dc.publisherWiley for American Water Resources Associationen_IE
dc.relation.ispartofJournal Of The American Water Resources Associationen
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Ireland
dc.subjectGroundwater slope wetlandsen_IE
dc.subjectWetland functionsen_IE
dc.subjectFirst-order streamsen_IE
dc.titleThe role of headwater wetlands in altering stream flow and chemistry in a Maine, USA catchmenten_IE
dc.local.publishedsource 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00519.xen_IE
dc.local.contactTerry Morley, Geography, Room 105, Concourse, Nui Galway. Email:

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