An examination of gender differences in the impact of individual and organisational factors on work hours, work-life conflict and psychological strain in academics
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Hogan, V., Hogan, M.J., Hodgins, M., Kinman, G., & Bunting, B.P. (2015). An examination of gender differences in the impact of individual and organizational factors on work hours, work-life conflict, and psychological strain in academics. Irish Journal of Psychology.
The current study used multi-group structural equation modelling (SEM) to test a fully and partially mediated Extended Rational Model of Work-Life Conflict and examine the impact of job involvement, workaholism, work intensity, organisational expectations and support, and having children on work hours, work-life conflict and psychological strain in male and female academics. In total, 410 academics from three Irish universities completed an electronic questionnaire survey. Results indicated both commonalities and differences in the factors that influence work hours, work-life conflict and levels of psychological strain in men and women. Lower organisation expectations predicted longer working hours in both men and women; additional unique predictors of longer working hours in men were higher work intensity and having children; conversely, higher work enjoyment predicted longer working hours in women, but not men. Higher work intensity predicted higher work-life conflict in men and women. In the final best fitting model, longer work hours predicted higher levels of work-life conflict in women only. Findings are discussed in light of research and theory on work-life balance and the challenge of facilitating productivity and wellbeing in academia.