An evaluation of the effectiveness of the U.S Navy's crew resource management program
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O'Connor, P., Jones, D., McCauley, M., & Buttrey, S. (2012). "An evaluation of the effectiveness of the U.S Navy's crew resource management program". International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 1(1), 21-40.
Although every U.S. Naval aviator receives annual Crew Resource Management (CRM) training designed to improve mission effectiveness, the program has not been formally evaluated in the last decade. To assess the adequacy of the training, a multi-faceted method was used. Reactions were evaluated by analyzing 51,570 responses, collected over nine years, to an item pertaining to CRM that is part of a safety climate survey. A total of 172 responses were obtained on a multiple-choice knowledge test. The attitudes of 553 naval aviators were assessed using a measure based upon the Cockpit Management Attitudes Questionnaire. The CRM mishap rate from 1997 until 2007 was evaluated. It was found that naval aviators appear to think than CRM training is useful, are generally knowledgeable of, and display positive attitudes towards, the concepts addressed in the training. However, there is a lack of evidence to support the view that CRM training is having an effect on the mishap rate. The results suggest that there is a need to focus training on behaviors, with a particular emphasis on performance under stress. Further, a behavioral marker system should be used evaluate whether the CRM skills taught are translating into the appropriate behaviors in the aircraft.