The influence of size and charge of chitosan/polyglutamic acid hollow spheres on cellular internalization, viability and blood compatibility
Dash, Biraja C.
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Dash, B. C., Réthoré, G., Monaghan, M., Fitzgerald, K., Gallagher, W., & Pandit, A. The influence of size and charge of chitosan/polyglutamic acid hollow spheres on cellular internalization, viability and blood compatibility. Biomaterials, 31(32), 8188-8197.
Polymeric hollow spheres can be tailored as efficient carriers of various therapeutic molecules due to their tunable properties. However, the entry of these synthetic vehicles into cells, their cell viability and blood compatibility depend on their physical and chemical properties e.g. size, surface charge. Herein, we report the effect of size and surface charge on cell viability and cellular internalization behaviour and their effect on various blood components using chitosan/polyglutamic acid hollow spheres as a model system. Negatively charged chitosan/polyglutamic acid hollow spheres of various sizes 100, 300, 500 and 1000 nm were fabricated using a template based method and covalently surface modified using linear polyethylene glycol and methoxyethanol amine to create a gradient of surface charge from negative to neutrally charged spheres respectively. The results here suggest that both size and surface charge have a significant influence on the sphere¿s behaviour, most prominently on haemolysis, platelet activation, plasma recalcification time, cell viability and internalization over time. Additionally, cellular internalization behaviour and viability was found to vary with different cell types. These results are in agreement with those of inorganic spheres and liposomes, and can serve as guidelines for tailoring polymeric solid spheres for specific desired applications in biological and pharmaceutical fields, including the design of nanometer to submicron-sized delivery vehicles.