Quantification of the sensing radius of a coaxial probe for accurate interpretation of heterogeneous tissue dielectric data
La Gioia, Alessandra
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La Gioia, Alessandra, Salahuddin, Saqib, O'Halloran, Martin, & Porter, Emily. (2018). Quantification of the Sensing Radius of a Coaxial Probe for Accurate Interpretation of Heterogeneous Tissue Dielectric Data. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology, 2(3), 145-153. doi:10.1109/JERM.2018.2841798
Accurate tissue dielectric measurements are crucial for the development of electromagnetic diagnostic and therapeutic devices that are designed based on estimates of the dielectric properties of diseased and healthy tissues. Although the dielectric measurement procedure is straightforward, several factors can introduce uncertainties into dielectric data. Generally, uncertainties are higher in the dielectric measurement of heterogeneous tissues, due to the fact that there is no standard procedure for acquiring and interpreting the dielectric data of heterogeneous tissues. Uncertainties related to tissue heterogeneity can be minimized by estimating the probe sensing volume, defined by the sensing depth and radius, and characterizing the tissue distribution within that volume. While several studies have investigated the sensing depth, this paper focuses on examining the sensing radius. Both dielectric measurements and numerical simulations with heterogeneous porcine tissues in the microwave range of 0.5-20 GHz have been conducted to quantify the sensing radius and the dielectric contribution of each tissue within the sensing volume. Experiments demonstrate that the sensing radius, which depends on the individual dielectric properties of the constituent tissue types, can be smaller than the probe radius. This paper further quantitatively demonstrates that the dielectric contribution of a particular tissue depends on both its location within the sensing volume and its dielectric properties. This study provides fundamental knowledge for accurately interpreting dielectric data of heterogeneous tissues, with the aim of supporting medical device development.