Multiplex immunosensor arrays for electrochemical detection of cancer biomarker proteins
Munge, Bernard S.
Rusling, James F.
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Munge, Bernard S. Stracensky, Thomas; Gamez, Kathleen; DiBiase, Dimitri; Rusling, James F. (2016). Multiplex immunosensor arrays for electrochemical detection of cancer biomarker proteins. Electroanalysis 28 (11), 2644-2658
Measuring panels of protein biomarkers offer a new personalized approach to early cancer detection, disease monitoring and patients' response to therapy. Multiplex electrochemical methods are uniquely positioned to provide faster, more sensitive, point of care (POC) devices to detect protein biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. Nanomaterials-based electrochemical methods offer sensitivity needed for early cancer detection. This review discusses recent advances in multiplex electrochemical immunosensors for cancer diagnostics and disease monitoring. Different electrochemical strategies including enzyme-based immunoarrays, nanoparticle-based immunoarrays and electrochemiluminescence methods are discussed. Many of these methods have been integrated into microfluidic systems, but measurement of more than 2-4 protein markers in a small single serum sample is still a challenge. For POC applications, a simple, low cost method is required. Major challenges in multiplexed microfluidic immunoassays are reagent additions and washing steps that require creative engineering solutions. 3-D printed microfluidics and paper-based microfluidic devices are also explored.