Inositol transport in preimplantation rabbit embryos: effects of embryo stage, sodium, osmolality and metabolic inhibitors
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Warner, S. Conlon, F.; Kane, M. (2003). Inositol transport in preimplantation rabbit embryos: effects of embryo stage, sodium, osmolality and metabolic inhibitors. Reproduction 125 (4), 479-493
The preimplantation period in the rabbit consists of a 3 day cleavage stage during which the number of cells increases with little change in embryo size, followed by a 3-4 day blastocyst stage during which the inner cell mass, the blastocoel and the trophectodermal layer are formed and the embryo grows rapidly in size and protein content. This study used [H-3]inositol to investigate the transport of inositol, an essential component of the phosphatidylinositol signal transduction system, over the 6 days of preimplantation development by rabbit embryos. In the presence of 15 mumol inositol I-1 in the incubation medium, there was a small linear increase in inositol uptake from 0.07 pmol per embryo per h at the one-cell stage (day 1) to 0.135 pmol at the late morula (day 3) stage. Inositol uptake increased to 0.58 pmol per embryo per h for early blastocysts (day 4) and 23.7 pmol for late blastocysts (day 6). There was a significant linear relationship between inositol uptake and blastocyst diameter and surface area. Efflux of inositol from early morulae was minimal (about 1.25% of embryo content per h), whereas efflux from mid-blastocysts (day 5) was much greater (about 15.6% of embryo content per h). Efflux of inositol from both early morulae and mid-blastocysts was increased by decreasing the osmolality of the incubation medium. Varying the osmolality had no effect on inositol uptake up to 2 h. Inositol uptake was dependent on sodium in cleavage-stage embryos but independent of sodium in blastocyst stages. In early morulae, inositol uptake was inhibited by glucose and the sodium-dependent hexose transport inhibitor, phloridzin, but not by the facilitated transport inhibitor, phloretin. Inositol uptake in early morulae was saturable; estimates of 0.227 and 0.288 pmol per morula per h for V-max and 0.045 and 0.038 mumol I-1 for K-m were obtained for sodium-dependent transport in two separate experiments. All of these results are consistent with the hypothesis that transport in cleavage stages occurs via a sodium myo-inositol transporter (SMIT) protein. Uptake in blastocysts was non-saturable. Uptake into blastocysts appeared to take place by a transcellular rather than a paracellular route.