Recreational drugs and fetal gastroschisis: maternal hair analysis in the peri-conceptional period and during pregnancy
Morrison, John J.
Chitty, Lynn S.
Rodeck, Charles H.
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Morrison, John J. Chitty, Lynn S.; Peebles, Donald; Rodeck, Charles H. (2005). Recreational drugs and fetal gastroschisis: maternal hair analysis in the peri-conceptional period and during pregnancy. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 112 (8), 1022-1025
Objective To objectively measure individual recreational drug groups in maternal hair samples timed for the period of conception and different stages of pregnancy in expectant mothers with a diagnosis of fetal gastroschisis. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Tertiary level Fetal Medicine Unit in a University teaching hospital. Population Pregnant women with a diagnosis of fetal gastroschisis (n= 22) and a control group of women (n= 25) with a normal fetus. Methods Hair samples were cut from the vertex of the head of expectant mothers with a diagnosis of fetal gastroschisis and a matched control group in whom the fetus was normal. The samples were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for individual drug groups. Confirmatory tests using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GCMS) were used. Main outcome measures Presence of recreational drug compounds in hair samples. Results In the group with fetal gastroschisis there were four proven positive cases for recreational drug abuse (18%) and there were none in the control group. Conclusions The incidence of recreational drug use in the peri-conceptional period and the first trimester by expectant mothers with a diagnosis of fetal gastroschisis is 18%. This association may be linked to the recent increase in the incidence of gastroschisis among younger mothers.