Structural characterization of the lipid a component of helicobacter pylori rough- and smooth-form lipopolysaccharides.
Moran, A P
Walsh, E J
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Moran, A P; Lindner, B; Walsh, E J (1997). Structural characterization of the lipid a component of helicobacter pylori rough- and smooth-form lipopolysaccharides.. Journal of Bacteriology 179 (20), 6453-6463
The chemical structure of free lipid A isolated from rough-and smooth-form lipopolysaccharides (R-LPS and S-LPS, respectively) of the human gastroduodenal pathogen Helicobacter pylori was elucidated by compositional and degradative analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The predominant molecular species in both lipid A components are identical and tetraacylated, but a second molecular species which is hexaacylated is also present in lipid A from S-LPS. Despite differences in substitution by acyl chains, the hydrophilic backbone of the molecules consisted of beta(1,6)-linked D-glucosamine (GlcN) disaccharide 1-phosphate. Because of microheterogeneity, nonstoichiometric amounts of ethanolamine-phosphate were also linked to the glycosidic hydroxyl group. In S-LPS, but not in R-LPS, the hydroxyl group at position 4' was partially substituted by another phosphate group. Considerable variation in the distribution of fatty acids on the lipid A backbone was revealed by laser desorption mass spectrometry. In tetraacyl lipid A, the amino group of the reducing GlcN carried (R)-3-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (position 2), that of the nonreducing GlcN carried (R)-3-(octadecanoyloxy)octadecanoic acid (position 2'), and ester-bound (R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid was attached at position 3. Hexaacyl lipid A had a similar substitution by fatty acids, but in addition, ester-bound (R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)hexadecanoic acid or (R)-3(tetradecanoyloxy)hexadecanoic acid was attached at position 3'. The predominant absence of ester-bound 4'-phosphate and the presence of tetraacyl lipid A with fatty acids of 16 to 18 carbons in length differentiate H. pylori lipid A from that of other bacterial species and help explain the low endotoxic end biological activities of H. pylori LPS.