Pcb integrated inductors for low power dc/dc converter
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Ludwig, M. Duffy, M.; O'Donnell, T.; McCloskey, P.; O'Mathuna, S.C. (2003). Pcb integrated inductors for low power dc/dc converter. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 18 (4), 937-945
This paper discusses the use of printed circuit board (PCB) integrated inductors for low power dc/dc buck converters. Coreless, magnetic plates and closed core structures are compared in terms of achievable inductance, power handling and efficiency in a footprint of 10 x 10 mm(2). The magnetic layers consist of electroplated NiFe, so that the process is fully compatible with standard PCB process. Analytic and finite element method (FEM) methods are applied to predict inductor performance for typical current waveforms encountered in a buck converter. Conventional magnetic design procedures are applied to define optimum winding and core structures for typical inductor specifications. A 4.7 muH PCB integrated inductor with dc current handling of up to 500 mA is presented. This inductor is employed in a 1.5 W buck converter using a commercial control integrated circuit (IC). The footprint of the entire converter measures 10 x 10 mm(2) and is built on top of the integrated inductor to demonstrate the concept of integrated passives in power electronic circuits to achieve ultra flat and compact converter solutions.