Effect of elevated systemic concentrations of ammonia and urea on the metabolite and ionic composition of oviductal fluid in cattle1
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Kenny, D.A. Humpherson, P.G.; Leese, H.J.; Morris, D.G.; Tomos, A.D.; Diskin, M.G.; Sreenan, J.M. (2002). Effect of elevated systemic concentrations of ammonia and urea on the metabolite and ionic composition of oviductal fluid in cattle1. Biology of Reproduction 66 (6), 1797-1804
High dietary protein leads to elevated systemic concentrations of ammonia and urea, and these, in turn, have been associated with reduced fertility in cattle. The effect of elevating systemic concentrations of ammonia and urea on the concentrations of electrolytes and nonelectrolytes in bovine oviductal fluid were studied using estrus-synchronized, nulliparous heifers (n = 25). Heifers were randomly assigned to I of 3 treatments consisting of jugular vein infusion with either ammonium chloride (n = 8), urea (n = 8), or saline (n = 9). Oviducts were catheterized, and fluid was recovered over a 3-h period on either Day 2 or 8 of the estrous cycle. No difference (P > 0.05) was found in the concentrations of any electrolyte or nonelectrolyte between oviducts ipsi- or contralateral to the corpus luteum. Plasma and oviductal concentrations of urea were increased by infusion with urea (P < 0.001) and ammonium chloride (P < 0.05) but not by saline (P > 0.05). Plasma and oviductal concentrations of ammonia were elevated by infusion with ammonium chloride (P < 0.001) but not by infusion with urea or saline (P > 0.05). No effect (P > 0.05) of treatment was found on oviductal or plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, magnesium, potassium, or sodium or on plasma concentrations of insulin or progesterone. The concentration of calcium in oviductal fluid was reduced by urea infusion and was negatively associated with systemic and oviductal concentrations of urea. Oviductal concentrations of sodium were higher on Day 8 than on Day 2 (P < 0.05). No effect of sample day was found on any of the other electrolytes or nonelectrolytes measured (P > 0.05). Elevated systemic concentrations of ammonia and urea are unlikely to reduce embryo survival through disruptions in the oviductal environment.