Chemical structure of the lipid a component of lipopolysaccharides of the genus pectinatus
Helander, Ilkka M.
Moran, Anthony P.
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Helander, Ilkka M. Kilpelainen, Ilkka; Vaara, Martti; Moran, Anthony P.; Lindner, Buko; Seydel, Ulrich (1994). Chemical structure of the lipid a component of lipopolysaccharides of the genus pectinatus. European Journal of Biochemistry 224 (1), 63-70
The chemical structure of the lipid A components of smooth-type lipopolysaccharides isolated from the type strains of strictly anaerobic beer-spoilage bacteria Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus and Pectinatus frisingensis were analyzed. The hydrophilic backbone of lipid A was shown, by controlled degradation of lipopolysaccharide combined with chemical assays and P-31-NMR spectroscopy, to consist of the common beta 1-6-linked disaccharide of pyranosidic 2-deoxy-glucosamine (GlcN), phosphorylated at the glycosidic position and at position 4'. In de-O-acylated lipopolysaccharide, the latter phosphate was shown to be quantitatively substituted with 4-amino-4-deoxyarabinose, whereas the glycosidically linked phosphate was present as a monoester. Laser-desorption mass spectrometry of free dephosphorylated lipid A revealed that the distal (non-reducing) GlcN was substituted at positions 2' and 3' with (R)-3-(undecanoyloxy)tridecanoic acid, whereas the reducing GlcN carried two unsubstituted (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoic acids at positions 2 and 3. The lipid A of both Pectinatus species were thus of the asymmetric hexaacyl type. The linkage of lipid A to polysaccharide in the lipopolysaccharide was relatively resistant to acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, enabling the preparation of a dephosphorylated and deacylated saccharide backbone. Methylation analysis of the backbone revealed that position 6' of the distal GlcN of lipid A was the attachment site of the polysaccharide. Despite the quantitative substitution of the lipid A 4'-phosphate by 4-amino-4-deoxyarabinose, which theoretically should render the bacteria resistant to polymyxin, P. cerevisiiphilus was shown to be susceptible to this antibiotic. P. cerevisiiphilus was, however, also susceptible to vancomycin and bacitracin, indicating that the outer membrane of this bacterium does not act as an effective permeability barrier