Clinical and immunological risk factors associated withhaemophilus influenzaetype b conjugate vaccine failure in childhood
Heath, P. T.
Azzopardi, H. J.
Slack, M. P. E.
Moloney, A. C.
Moxon, E. R.
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Heath, P. T. Booy, R.; Griffiths, H.; Clutterbuck, E.; Azzopardi, H. J.; Slack, M. P. E.; Fogarty, J.; Moloney, A. C.; Moxon, E. R. (2000). Clinical and immunological risk factors associated withhaemophilus influenzaetype b conjugate vaccine failure in childhood. Clinical Infectious Diseases 31 (4), 973-980
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have proved extremely efficacious in healthy children. True Hib vaccine failures are rare. Hib conjugate vaccines were introduced for routine immunization in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland in 1992, Coincident with this, active prospective and national surveillance via pediatricians, microbiologists, and public health physicians was commenced to assess the clinical and immunological factors associated with vaccine failure. During the 6 years of the study, 115 children with true vaccine failure were reported. Of the children who were vaccinated before 12 months of age, a clinical risk factor was detected in 20%, an immunological deficiency was detected in 30%, and one or both were detected in 44%. Children who were vaccinated after 12 months of age were more likely to have one or both factors (67%). Thirty percent (33 of 105) of children with true vaccine failure had a low Hib antibody response (concentration, <1.0 <mu>g/mL) after disease, but the majority then responded to a further dose of Hib vaccine. Children who develop Hib disease despite vaccination deserve further clinical and immunological evaluation.