Identification of novel chicken estrogen receptor- messenger ribonucleic acid isoforms generated by alternative splicing and promoter usage
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Griffin, C. (1998). Identification of novel chicken estrogen receptor- messenger ribonucleic acid isoforms generated by alternative splicing and promoter usage. Endocrinology 139 (11), 4614-4625
Using the rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends (RACE) methodology we have identified three new chicken estrogen receptor-ol (cER alpha) messenger RNA (mRNA) variants in addition to the previously described form (isoform A). Whereas one of the new variants (isoform B) presents a 5'-extremity contiguous to the 5'-end of isoform A, the two other forms (isoforms C and D) are generated by alternative splicing of upstream exons (C and D) to a common site situated 70 nucleotides upstream of the translation start site in the previously assigned exon 1 (A). The 3'-end of exon le has been located at position - 1334 upstream of the transcription start site of the A isoform (+1). Whereas the genomic location of exon 1D is unknown, 700 bp 5' to this exon were isolated by genomic walking, and their sequence was determined. The transcription start sites of the cER alpha mRNA isoforms were defined. In transfection experiments, the regions immediately upstream of the A-D cER alpha mRNA isoforms were shown to possess cell-specific promoter activities. Three of these promoters were down-regulated in the presence of estradiol and ER alpha protein. It is concluded, therefore, that the expression of the four different cER alpha mRNA isoforms is under the control of four different promoters. Finally, RT-PCR, S1 nuclease mapping, and primer extension analysis of these different cERa mRNA isoforms revealed a differential pattern of expression of the cERa: gene in chicken tissues. Together, the results suggest that alternative B'-splicing and promoter usage may be mechanisms used to modulate the levels of expression of the chicken ER alpha gene in a tissue-specific and/or developmental stage-specific manner.