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dc.contributor.authorConnolly, Alison
dc.contributor.authorBasinas, Ioannis
dc.contributor.authorJones, Kate
dc.contributor.authorGalea, Karen S.
dc.contributor.authorKenny, Laura
dc.contributor.authorMcGowan, Padraic
dc.contributor.authorCoggins, Marie A.
dc.identifier.citationConnolly, Alison, Basinas, Ioannis, Jones, Kate, Galea, Karen S., Kenny, Laura, McGowan, Padraic, & Coggins, Marie A. (2018). Characterising glyphosate exposures among amenity horticulturists using multiple spot urine samples. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 221(7), 1012-1022. doi:
dc.description.abstractBackground Glyphosate has recently received much public attention following its Group 2A probably carcinogenic to humans classification from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Despite the widespread use of glyphosate, there is limited data on potential exposures during common occupational uses. Objective The study aimed to characterise occupational exposures to glyphosate among amenity horticulturists through the collection and analysis of urine samples following pesticide application. The impact of work practices on personal exposure, as well as suitability of collecting multiple spot urine samples as a sampling strategy for the assessment of occupational exposure for glyphosate were also examined. Methods A minimum of three spot urine samples were collected per work task; before the work task began, after the work task completion and the following first morning void. All samples were analysed separately for glyphosate using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and for creatinine. Differences in urinary glyphosate concentrations between the pre-task samples versus the post-task and the peak urinary samples were both analysed using paired Student t-tests. Determinants of exposure on glyphosate urine concentrations were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficients and linear regression. A multivariate mixed effect model were elaborated to compare the glyphosate concentrations between post-task and following first morning void samples. In these models, worker identity was entered as a random effect to account for the presence of correlations between repeated measurements from the same individuals. Results Peak urine glyphosate concentrations measured for work tasks were 2.5, 1.9, 1.9 and 7.4 μg L−1 (arithmetic mean, geometric mean, median and maximum value, respectively). Concentrations were highest in samples taken up to 3 h after completing the work task. Regression analysis showed that workers who sprayed the day before the sampling task had higher glyphosate concentrations in pre-task samples than those who did not spray the day before (p en_IE
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors would like to acknowledge the Commissioners of Public Works in Ireland, the Health and Safety Authority (HSA) of Ireland and the Colt Foundation UK for funding this project. We would also like to thank all the horticultural workers who participated in this study and the OPW Health and Safety Unit for their support throughout the project. We would also like to thank Hilary Cowie (IOM) for her helpful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. HSE's contribution to this publication was funded by the Health and Safety Executive of Great Britain. Its contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy.en_IE
dc.relation.ispartofInternational Journal Of Hygiene And Environmental Healthen
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Ireland
dc.subjectOccupational exposureen_IE
dc.subjectSampling strategyen_IE
dc.titleCharacterising glyphosate exposures among amenity horticulturists using multiple spot urine samplesen_IE
dc.contributor.funderCommissioners of Public Works in Irelanden_IE
dc.contributor.funderHealth and Safety Authorityen_IE
dc.contributor.funderColt Foundation UKen_IE
dc.local.contactMarie Coggins, School Of Physics, Room 212, Arts/Science Building, Nui Galway. 5056 Email:

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