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dc.contributor.authorDunne, Eoghan
dc.contributor.authorMcGinley, Brian
dc.contributor.authorO'Halloran, Martin
dc.contributor.authorPorter, Emily
dc.identifier.citationEoghan, Dunne, Brian, McGinley, Martin, O’Halloran, & Emily, Porter. (2018). A realistic pelvic phantom for electrical impedance measurement. Physiological Measurement, 39(3), 1-10. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aaa3c0en_IE
dc.description.abstractObjective: To design and fabricate an anatomically and conductively accurate phantom for electrical impedance studies of non-invasive bladder volume monitoring. Approach: A modular pelvic phantom was designed and fabricated, consisting of a mechanically and conductively stable boundary wall, a background medium, and bladder phantoms. The wall and bladders are made of conductive polyurethane. The background material is an ultrasound gel-based mixture, with conductivity matched to a weighted average of the pelvic cavity organs, bone, muscle and fat. The phantom boundary is developed using a computer tomography model of a male human pelvis. The bladder phantoms were designed to correlate with human bladder dimensions. Electrical impedance measurements of the phantom were recorded, and images produced using six different bladder phantoms and a realistic finite element model. Main results: Five different bladder volumes were successfully imaged using an empty bladder as a reference. The average conductivity index from the reconstructed images showed a strong positive correlation with the bladder phantom volumes. Significance: A conductively and anatomically accurate pelvic phantom was developed for non-invasive bladder volume monitoring using electrical impedance measurements. Several bladders were designed to correlate with actual human bladder volumes, allowing for accurate volume estimation. The conductivity of the phantom is accurate over 50-250 kHz. This phantom can allow: changeable electrode location, contact and size; multi-layer electrodes configurations; increased complexity by addition of other organ or bone phantoms; and electrode movement and deformation. Overall, the pelvic phantom enables greater scope for experimentation and system refinement as a precursor to in-man clinical studies.en_IE
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was supported by funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Horizon 2020 Programme/ ERC Grant Agreement BioElecPro No. 637780 and the charity RESPECT and the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant Agreement no. PCOFUND-GA-2013-608728. The authors would like thank Kite Medical (, Kite Medical, Galway, Ireland) for the use of their Swisstom 44 cm electrode belt.en_IE
dc.publisherIOP Publishingen_IE
dc.relation.ispartofPhysiological Measurementen
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Ireland
dc.subjectElectrical impedanceen_IE
dc.subjectBladder volume monitoringen_IE
dc.subjectRealistic pelvic phantomen_IE
dc.subjectConductively accurateen_IE
dc.subjectUrinary bladderen_IE
dc.titleA realistic pelvic phantom for electrical impedance measurementen_IE
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Research Councilen_IE
dc.contributor.funderHorizon 2020en_IE
dc.contributor.funderFP7 People: Marie-Curie Actionsen_IE
dc.local.contactEoghan Dunne, -. - Email:
dcterms.projectinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/SFI/SFI ERC Support Programme/15/ERCS/3276/IE/BIOELECPRO: Frontier Research on the Dielectric Properties of Biological Tissue/en_IE

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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Ireland