Synthesis of fluorinated alkoxyamines and alkoxyamine-initiated nitroxide-mediated precipitation polymerizations of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide
Zetterlund, Per B.
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Christopher Magee, Aruna Earla, Jennifer Petraitis, Chad Higa, Rebecca Braslau, Per B. Zetterlund and Fawaz Aldabbagh (2014) 'Synthesis of fluorinated alkoxyamines and alkoxyamine-initiated nitroxide-mediated precipitation polymerizations of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide'. Polymer Chemistry, 5 :5725-5733.
TIPNO (2,2,5-trimethyl-4-phenyl-3-azahexane-3-nitroxide)-alkoxyamine was found to give reasonably controlled/living nitroxide-mediated (NMP) precipitation polymerizations of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)). In contrast under the same conditions, the analogous SG1 (N-tert-butyl-N-(1-diethylphosphono-2,2-dimethylpropyl)nitroxide)-alkoxyamine gave higher rates of polymerization and inferior controlled/living character. The circumvention of the requirement for excess free (nitroxide](0) allowed the study of nitroxide partitioning effects in scCO(2) for three newly synthesized fluorinated alkoxyamines. Two alkoxyamines dissociated into scCO(2)-philic fluorinated TIPNO-nitroxide derivatives, while another contains a similar sized fluorinated "foot". Despite the increased steric bulk about the N-O bond for the novel fluorinated alkoxyamines, all polymerizations proceeded at a similar rate and level of control to the TIPNO system in solution (toluene). PREDICI simulations for the styrene/TIPNO system are used to support extensive partitioning effects observed in scCO(2) for the fluorinated alkoxyamines.