The performance of constructed wetlands treating primary, secondary and dairy soiled water in Ireland (a review).
Healy, Mark G.
Con, O' Flynn
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Healy, M.G., O' Flynn, C.J. 2011. The performance of constructed wetlands treating primary, secondary and dairy soiled water in Ireland (a review). Journal of Environmental Management 92: 2348-2354.
In Ireland, no database detailing the design, influent loading rates or performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) exists. On account of this, they are designed without any protocol based on empirical data. The aim of this paper was to provide the first published data on the performance of free-water surface flow (FWSF) CWs treating primary and secondary-treated municipal wastewater, and agricultural dairy soiled water (DSW) in Ireland. In total, the performance of thirty-four FWSF CWs, comprising fourteen CWs treating primary-treated municipal wastewater, thirteen CWs treating secondary-treated municipal wastewater, and seven CWs treating DSW, were examined. In most CWs, good organic, suspended solids (SS) and nutrient removal was measured. At an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 10 and 9 g biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) m-2 d-1, CWs treating primary and secondary wastewater removed 95 and 84% of influent BOD. Constructed wetlands treating DSW had an average BOD removal of 98%. At average SS loading rates of 6 and 14 g m-2 d-1, CWs treating primary and secondary wastewater had a 96 and an 82% reduction, and produced a final effluent with a concentration of 14 and 13 mg L-1. Constructed wetlands treating DSW produced a final effluent of 34 mg L-1 (94% reduction). Similar to other studies, all CWs examined had variable performance in ammonium-N (NH4+-N) removal, with average removals varying between 37% (for CWs treating secondary wastewater) and 88% (for CWs treating DSW). Variable ortho-phosphorus (PO43--P) removal was attributable to different durations of operation, media types and loading rates.
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