Brain haemorrhage detection through SVM classification of electrical impedance tomography measurements
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McDermott B., Dunne E., O’Halloran M., Porter E., Santorelli A. (2019) Brain Haemorrhage Detection Through SVM Classification of Electrical Impedance Tomography Measurements. In: Makarov S., Horner M., Noetscher G. (eds) Brain and Human Body Modeling. Springer, Cham
A brain haemorrhage constitutes a serious medical scenario with a need for rapid, accurate detection to facilitate treatment initiation. Machine learning (ML) techniques applied to such medical diagnostic problems can improve the rate and accuracy of bleed detection leading to improved patient outcomes. In this chapter we examine the potential role of support vector machine (SVM) type classifiers in detecting such haemorrhagic lesions (bleeds) using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) measurement frames as the source of training and test data. A two-layer computational model of the head is designed, with EIT frame generation simulated from electrodes placed on the surface of the head model. A wide variety of test scenarios are modelled, including variations in measurement noise, bleed size and location, electrode position, and anatomy. Initial results using a linear SVM classifier applied to test scenarios, with and without pre-processing of the EIT measurement frame, are summarised. The classifier returned detection accuracies >90% with signal-to-noise ratios of ≥60 dB; was independent of bleed location, capable of detecting bleeds as small as 10 ml; and was unaffected by slight variances of ±2 mm in electrode position. However, the performance was degraded with anatomical variations. Options for improvement of performance, including selection of a different kernel and pre-processing of the frames prior to implementing the classifier, are then examined. This analysis demonstrated that using the radial basis function as the kernel for the SVM classifier and principal component analysis (PCA) to select specific features leads to the most accurate and robust performance. The analysis and results indicate that the coupling of EIT with ML has potential for improvement in the detection of bleeds such as brain haemorrhages.