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The role of the brain's endocannabinoid system in pain and its modulation by stress
Stress has a complex, bidirectional modulatory influence on pain. Stress may either reduce (stress-induced analgesia) or exacerbate (stress-induced hyperalgesia) pain depending on the nature, duration, and intensity of the ...
Cannabinoids and pain: sites and mechanisms of action
The endocannabinoid system, consisting of the cannabinoid(1) receptor (CB1R) and cannabinoid(2) receptor (CB2R), endogenous cannabinoid ligands (endocannabinoids), and metabolizing enzymes, is present throughout the pain ...
Supraspinal transient receptor potential subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in pain and psychiatric disorders
The transient receptor potential subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) belongs to the diverse transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels. It was first characterized in primary afferent fibres as a receptor for ...