Bi-frequency symmetry difference electrical impedance tomography a novel technique for perturbation detection in static scenes
Aristovich, Kirill Y.
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Barry James, McDermott, James, Avery, Martin, O'Halloran, Kirill, Y. Aristovich, & Emily, Porter. (2019). Physiological Measurement.,doi:10.1088/1361-6579/ab08ba
Objective: A novel method for the imaging of static scenes using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is reported with implementation and validation using numerical and phantom models. The technique is applicable to regions featuring symmetry in the normal case, asymmetry in the presence of a perturbation, and where there is a known, frequency-dependent change in the electrical conductivity of the materials in the region. Methods: The stroke diagnostic problem is used as a motivating sample application. The head is largely symmetrical across the sagittal plane. A haemorrhagic or ischaemic lesion located away from the sagittal plane will alter this natural symmetry, resulting in a symmetrical imbalance that can be detected using EIT. Specifically, application of EIT stimulation and measurement protocols at two distinct frequencies detects deviations in symmetry if an asymmetrically positioned lesion is present, with subsequent identification and localisation of the perturbation based on known frequency-dependent conductivity changes. Anatomically accurate computational models are used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique using different types, sizes, and locations of lesions with frequency-dependent (or independent) conductivity. Further, a realistic experimental head phantom is used to validate the technique using frequency-dependent perturbations emulating the key numerical simulations. Results: Lesion presence, type, and location are detectable using this novel technique. Results are presented in the form of images and corresponding robust quantitative metrics. Better detection is achieved for larger lesions, those further from the sagittal plane, and when measurements have a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Conclusion: Bi-Frequency Symmetry Difference EIT is an exciting new modality of EIT with the ability to detect deviations in the symmetry of a region that occur due to the presence of a lesion. Notably, this modality does not require a time change in the region and thus may be used in static scenarios such as stroke detection.