Extended wavelength anisotropy resolved multidimensional emission spectroscopy (ARMES) measurements: better filters, validation standards, and Rayleigh scatter removal methods
Ryder, Alan G.
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Casamayou-Boucau, Yannick, & Ryder, Alan G. (2017). Extended wavelength anisotropy resolved multidimensional emission spectroscopy (ARMES) measurements: better filters, validation standards, and Rayleigh scatter removal methods. Methods and Applications in Fluorescence, 5(037001). doi: 10.1088/2050-6120/aa7763
Anisotropy resolved multidimensional emission spectroscopy (ARMES) provides valuable insights into multi-fluorophore proteins (Groza et al 2015 Anal. Chim. Acta 886 133-42). Fluorescence anisotropy adds to the multidimensional fluorescence dataset information about the physical size of the fluorophores and/or the rigidity of the surrounding micro-environment. The first ARMES studies used standard thin film polarizers (TFP) that had negligible transmission between 250 and 290 nm, preventing accurate measurement of intrinsic protein fluorescence from tyrosine and tryptophan. Replacing TFP with pairs of broad band wire grid polarizers enabled standard fluorescence spectrometers to accurately measure anisotropies between 250 and 300 nm, which was validated with solutions of perylene in the UV and Erythrosin B and Phloxine B in the visible. In all cases, anisotropies were accurate to better than +/- 1% when compared to literature measurements made with Glan Thompson or TFP polarizers. Better dual wire grid polarizer UV transmittance and the use of excitation-emission matrix measurements for ARMES required complete Rayleigh scatter elimination. This was achieved by chemometric modelling rather than classical interpolation, which enabled the acquisition of pure anisotropy patterns over wider spectral ranges. In combination, these three improvements permit the accurate implementation of ARMES for studying intrinsic protein fluorescence.