Characterization and seasonal variations of levoglucosan in fine particulate matter in xi’an, china
Chow, Judith C.
Ho, Steven Sai Hang
Watson, John G.
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Zhang, Ting; Cao, Jun-Ji; Chow, Judith C. Shen, Zhen-Xing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Liu, Sui-Xin; Han, Yong-Ming; Watson, John G.; Wang, Ge-Hui; Huang, Ru-Jin (2014). Characterization and seasonal variations of levoglucosan in fine particulate matter in xi’an, china. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 64 (11), 1317-1327
PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter &lt;2.5 mu m) samples (n = 58) collected every sixth day in Xi'an, China, from 5 July 2008 to 27 June 2009 are analyzed for levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-beta-d-glucopyranose) to evaluate the impacts of biomass combustion on ambient concentrations. Twenty-four-hour levoglucosan concentrations displayed clear summer minima and winter maxima that ranged from 46 to 1889 ng m(-3), with an average of 428 +/- 399 ng m(-3). Besides agricultural burning, biomass/biofuel combustion for household heating with straws and branches appears to be of regional importance during the heating season in northwestern China. Good correlations (0.70 &lt; R &lt; 0.91) were found between levoglucosan relative to water-soluble K+, Cl-, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and glyoxal. The highest levoglucosan/OC ratio of 2.3% was found in winter, followed by autumn (1.5%). Biomass burning contributed to 5.1-43.8% of OC (with an average of 17.6 +/- 8.4%). Implications: PM2.5 levoglucosan concentrations and the correlation between levoglucosan relative to other compounds during four seasons in Xi'an showed that the influence of biomass burning is maximum during the residential heating season (winter), although some important influences may be detected in spring (field preparation burnings) and autumn (corn stalks and wheat straw burning, fallen dead leaves burning) at Xi'an and surrounding areas. Household heating with biomass during winter was quite widespread in Guanzhong Plain. Therefore, the control of biomass/biofuel combustion could be an effective method to reduce pollutant emission on a regional scale.