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dc.contributor.authorWebster, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorSingh, Sima
dc.contributor.authorVardhan, Harsh
dc.contributor.authorKotla, Niranjan
dc.contributor.authorMaddiboyina, Balaji
dc.contributor.authorSharma, Dinesh
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-20T16:24:53Z
dc.date.available2018-09-20T16:24:53Z
dc.date.issued2016-04-01
dc.identifier.citationWebster, Thomas; Singh, Sima; Vardhan, Harsh; Kotla, Niranjan; Maddiboyina, Balaji; Sharma, Dinesh (2016). The role of surfactants in the formulation of elastic liposomal gels containing a synthetic opioid analgesic. International Journal of Nanomedicine 11 , 1475-1482
dc.identifier.issn1178-2013
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10379/13932
dc.description.abstractTransdermal drug delivery systems have made significant contributions to the medical community, but have yet to completely substitute oral or parenteral delivery. Recently, various strategies have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of therapeutics. Primarily, they include iontophoresis, electrophoresis, sonophoresis, chemical permeation enhancers, microneedles, and vesicular systems. Among these strategies, elastic liposomes appear promising. Elastic vesicle scaffolds have been developed and evaluated as novel topical and transdermal delivery systems, with an infrastructure consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties together, and as a result, such scaffolds can accommodate drug molecules with a wide range of solubility. High deformability of these vesicles provides for better penetration of intact vesicles. This system is much more efficient at delivering low-and high-molecular-weight drugs to the skin in terms of quantity and depth. In this work, elastic liposomes of Tramadol HCl were prepared using a solvent evaporation method with different surfactants and were characterized using microscopy, and particle size, shape, drug content, ex vivo release, and zeta potential were also calculated. The prepared elastic liposomes were found to be in the range of 152.4 nm with a zeta potential of -22.4 mV; the entrapment efficiencies of the selected formulation was found to be 79.71%+/- 0.27%. All formulations in the form of a gel were evaluated for physicochemical properties and were found to be homogeneous with no grittiness, and the pH of all formulations was found to be neutral. The optimized selected elastic liposomal formulation followed the Higuchi equation and Fickian diffusion and released the drug for a period of 24 hours. The overall results provide much promise for the continued investigation of deformable vesicles as transdermal drug carriers.
dc.publisherDove Medical Press Ltd.
dc.relation.ispartofInternational Journal of Nanomedicine
dc.subjectelastic liposome
dc.subjectskin delivery
dc.subjectocclusion
dc.subjecthydration-gradient
dc.subjecthydrogel
dc.subjectskin in-vitro
dc.subjecttopical application
dc.subjectlipid vesicles
dc.subjectdelivery
dc.subjecttransfersomes
dc.subjectpermeability
dc.subjectestradiol
dc.subjecttransport
dc.subjecttramadol
dc.subjectcarriers
dc.titleThe role of surfactants in the formulation of elastic liposomal gels containing a synthetic opioid analgesic
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.doi10.2147/ijn.s100253
dc.local.publishedsourcehttps://www.dovepress.com/getfile.php?fileID=29803
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