The structural and functional role of myelin fast-migrating cerebrosides: pathological importance in multiple sclerosis
Levery, Steven B
Hogan, Edward L
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Podbielska, Maria; Levery, Steven B; Hogan, Edward L (2011). The structural and functional role of myelin fast-migrating cerebrosides: pathological importance in multiple sclerosis. Clinical Lipidology 6 (2), 159-179
A family of neutral glycosphingolipids containing a 3-O-acetyl-sphingosine galactosylceramide (3-SAG) has been characterized. Seven new derivatives of galactosylceramide (GalCer), designated as fast-migrating cerebrosides (FMCs) by TLC retention factor, have been identified. The simplest compounds - FMC-1 and FMC-2 of this series have been characterized as the 3-SAG containing nonhydroxy and hydroxy fatty acyl, respectively. The next two -FMC-3 and FMC-4 - add 6-O-acetyl-galactose and the most complex glycosphingolipids, FMC-5, -6 and -7, are 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-3-SAG. These hydrophobic myelin lipid biomarkers coappear with GalCer during myelinogenesis and disappear along with GalCer in de- or dys-myelinating disorders. Myelin lipid antigens, including FMCs, are keys to myelin biology, opening the possibility of new and novel immune modulatory tools for treatment of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis.