Eurasian haplotype m phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steud., 1841 invasion in minnesota, usa: a baseline for further monitoring in the upper mississippi watershed
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Melchior, Paul; Weaver, Robbyn (2016). Eurasian haplotype m phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steud., 1841 invasion in minnesota, usa: a baseline for further monitoring in the upper mississippi watershed. BioInvasions Records 5 (2), 59-65
The cryptic invasion of North American aquatic ecosystems by non-native haplotypes of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud., 1841, has been well documented. Most research has focused on eastern Canada, and the eastern seaboard, St. Lawrence waterway, southwest (Utah), and Gulf coast regions of the United States. Less has been published on the extent of this invasion in the north central United States. In this report, 69 populations of Phragmites australis were identified and sampled within the Minnesota and Mississippi River corridors of Minnesota, as well as from roadway drainage ditches within the greater Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region (MSP). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing were used to determine the cpDNA lineage of each population. All populations sampled within the river valleys were native North American haplotype E, as were most MSP populations. However, numerous isolated populations of Eurasian haplotype M Phragmites australis were identified along MSP transportation corridors. Nuclear microsatellites indicated that these M haplotype populations are not clonal. These results show that Eurasian haplotype M Phragmites australis has become established in at least one region of Minnesota, but has not yet widely invaded the riparian wetlands of Minnesota's two largest rivers. This provides a baseline for continued monitoring of the spread of this invasive plant.