Short-form measures of diabetes-related emotional distress: the problem areas in diabetes scale (paid)-5 and paid-1
McGuire, B. E.
Morrison, T. G.
de Wit, M.
Snoek, F. J.
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McGuire, B. E. Morrison, T. G.; Hermanns, N.; Skovlund, S.; Eldrup, E.; Gagliardino, J.; Kokoszka, A.; Matthews, D.; Pibernik-Okanović, M.; Rodríguez-Saldaña, J.; de Wit, M.; Snoek, F. J. (2009). Short-form measures of diabetes-related emotional distress: the problem areas in diabetes scale (paid)-5 and paid-1. Diabetologia 53 (1), 66-69
We wanted to identify a five-item short form of the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale and a single-item measure for rapid screening of diabetes-related emotional distress. Using an existing database of 1,153 patients with diabetes, we conducted a principal-components analysis to identify a set of five items and then conducted a reliability analysis and validity checks. From those five items, we identified the item with the strongest psychometric properties as a one-item screening tool. We identified a reliable and valid short version of the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID) comprising five of the emotional-distress questions of the full PAID items (PAID-5, with items 3, 6, 12, 16, 19). The PAID-5 has satisfactory sensitivity (94%) and specificity (89%) for recognition of diabetes-related emotional distress. We also identified a one-item screening tool, the PAID-1 (Question 12: Worrying about the future and the possibility of serious complications), which has concurrent sensitivity and specificity of about 80% for the recognition of diabetes-related emotional distress. The PAID-5 and PAID-1 appear to be psychometrically robust short-form measures of diabetes-related emotional distress.