Open-ended coaxial probe technique for dielectric measurement of biological tissues: challenges and common practices
La Gioia, Alessandra
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La Gioia, Alessandra; Porter, Emily; Merunka, Ilja; Shahzad, Atif; Salahuddin, Saqib; Jones, Marggie; O’Halloran, Martin (2018). Open-ended coaxial probe technique for dielectric measurement of biological tissues: challenges and common practices. Diagnostics 8 (2),
Electromagnetic (EM) medical technologies are rapidly expanding worldwide for both diagnostics and therapeutics. As these technologies are low-cost and minimally invasive, they have been the focus of significant research efforts in recent years. Such technologies are often based on the assumption that there is a contrast in the dielectric properties of different tissue types or that the properties of particular tissues fall within a defined range. Thus, accurate knowledge of the dielectric properties of biological tissues is fundamental to EM medical technologies. Over the past decades, numerous studies were conducted to expand the dielectric repository of biological tissues. However, dielectric data is not yet available for every tissue type and at every temperature and frequency. For this reason, dielectric measurements may be performed by researchers who are not specialists in the acquisition of tissue dielectric properties. To this end, this paper reviews the tissue dielectric measurement process performed with an open-ended coaxial probe. Given the high number of factors, including equipment- and tissue-related confounders, that can increase the measurement uncertainty or introduce errors into the tissue dielectric data, this work discusses each step of the coaxial probe measurement procedure, highlighting common practices, challenges, and techniques for controlling and compensating for confounders.