The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor jzl184 attenuates lps-induced increases in cytokine expression in the rat frontal cortex and plasma: differential mechanisms of action
Finn, David P.
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Kerr, DM; Harhen, B; Okine, BN; Egan, LJ; Finn, DP; Roche, M (2013). The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor jzl184 attenuates lps-induced increases in cytokine expression in the rat frontal cortex and plasma: differential mechanisms of action. British Journal of Pharmacology 169 (4), 808-819
Background and purpose JZL184 is a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the enzyme that preferentially catabolizes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). Here, we have studied the effects of JZL184 on inflammatory cytokines in the brain and plasma following an acute immune challenge and the underlying receptor and molecular mechanisms involved. Experimental approach JZL184 and/or the CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251 or the CB2receptor antagonist, AM630 were administered to rats 30min before lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 2h later cytokine expression and levels, MAGL activity, 2-AG, arachidonic acid and prostaglandin levels were measured in the frontal cortex, plasma and spleen. Key results JZL184 attenuated LPS-induced increases in IL-1, IL-6, TNF- and IL-10 but not the expression of the inhibitor of NFkB (IB) in rat frontal cortex. AM251 attenuated JZL184-induced decreases in frontal cortical IL-1 expression. Although arachidonic acid levels in the frontal cortex were reduced in JZL184-treated rats, MAGL activity, 2-AG, PGE2 and PGD2 were unchanged. In comparison, MAGL activity was inhibited and 2-AG levels enhanced in the spleen following JZL184. In plasma, LPS-induced increases in TNF- and IL-10 levels were attenuated by JZL184, an effect partially blocked by AM251. In addition, AM630 blocked LPS-induced increases in plasma IL-1 in the presence, but not absence, of JZL184. Conclusion and implications Inhibition of peripheral MAGL in rats by JZL184 suppressed LPS-induced circulating cytokines that in turn may modulate central cytokine expression. The data provide further evidence for the endocannabinoid system as a therapeutic target in treatment of central and peripheral inflammatory disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-4 & http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.167.issue-8