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dc.contributor.authorJauffrais, Thierry
dc.contributor.authorKilcoyne, Jane
dc.contributor.authorSéchet, Véronique
dc.contributor.authorHerrenknecht, Christine
dc.contributor.authorTruquet, Philippe
dc.contributor.authorHervé, Fabienne
dc.contributor.authorBérard, Jean Baptiste
dc.contributor.authorNulty, Cíara
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, Sarah
dc.contributor.authorTillmann, Urban
dc.contributor.authorMiles, Christopher O.
dc.contributor.authorHess, Philipp
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-20T16:11:58Z
dc.date.available2018-09-20T16:11:58Z
dc.date.issued2012-06-13
dc.identifier.citationJauffrais, Thierry; Kilcoyne, Jane; Séchet, Véronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Hervé, Fabienne; Bérard, Jean Baptiste; Nulty, Cíara; Taylor, Sarah; Tillmann, Urban; Miles, Christopher O. Hess, Philipp (2012). Production and isolation of azaspiracid-1 and -2 from azadinium spinosum culture in pilot scale photobioreactors. Marine Drugs 10 (6), 1360-1382
dc.identifier.issn1660-3397
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10379/12078
dc.description.abstractAzaspiracid (AZA) poisoning has been reported following consumption of contaminated shellfish, and is of human health concern. Hence, it is important to have sustainable amounts of the causative toxins available for toxicological studies and for instrument calibration in monitoring programs, without having to rely on natural toxin events. Continuous pilot scale culturing was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of AZA production using Azadinium spinosum cultures. Algae were harvested using tangential flow filtration or continuous centrifugation. AZAs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and subsequently purified. When coupling two stirred photobioreactors in series, cell concentrations reached 190,000 and 210,000 cell.mL(-1) at steady state in bioreactors 1 and 2, respectively. The AZA cell quota decreased as the dilution rate increased from 0.15 to 0.3 day (1), with optimum toxin production at 0.25 day (1). After optimization, SPE procedures allowed for the recovery of 79 +/- 9% of AZAs. The preparative isolation procedure previously developed for shellfish was optimized for algal extracts, such that only four steps were necessary to obtain purified AZA1 and -2. A purification efficiency of more than 70% was achieved, and isolation from 1200 L of culture yielded 9.3 mg of AZA1 and 2.2 mg of AZA2 of >95% purity. This work demonstrated the feasibility of sustainably producing AZA1 and -2 from A. spinosum cultures.
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.relation.ispartofMarine Drugs
dc.subjectsolid phase extraction
dc.subjectphotobioreactor
dc.subjectchemostat
dc.subjectdinoflagellate
dc.subjectmicro-algae
dc.subjectlc-ms/ms
dc.subjecttangential flow filtration
dc.subjectazaspiracid
dc.subjecthp-20
dc.subjectdinoflagellate genus azadinium
dc.subjecttandem mass-spectrometry
dc.subjectmytilus-edulis
dc.subjectokadaic acid
dc.subjectprotoceratium-reticulatum
dc.subjectstructural elucidation
dc.subjectkarenia-selliformis
dc.subjectdinophysis-acuta
dc.subjecttoxin production
dc.subjectnorth-sea
dc.titleProduction and isolation of azaspiracid-1 and -2 from azadinium spinosum culture in pilot scale photobioreactors
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/md10061360
dc.local.publishedsourcehttp://www.mdpi.com/1660-3397/10/6/1360/pdf
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