Chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a simulated osteochondral environment is hydrogel dependent
de Vries-van Melle, ML
van Osch, GJVM
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de Vries-van Melle, ML; , ; Tihaya, MS; Kops, N; Koevoet, WJLM; Murphy, JM; Verhaar, JAN; Alini, M; Eglin, D; van Osch, GJVM (2014). Chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a simulated osteochondral environment is hydrogel dependent. European Cells and Materials 27 , 112-123
Hydrogels pose interesting features for cartilage regeneration strategies, such as the option for injectability and in situ gelation resulting in optimal filling of defects. We aimed to study different hydrogels for their capability to support chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). hBMSCs were encapsulated in alginate, alginate with hyaluronic acid (alginate/HA), fibrin or thermoresponsive HA grafted with poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) side-chains (HA-pNIPAM). Glycosaminoglycan production and cartilage-related gene expression were significantly higher in hBMSC-alginate and hBMSC-fibrin constructs than in the other constructs. Supplementation of alginate with HA was not beneficial. hBMSC-alginate, hBMSC-fibrin and hBMSC-HA-pNIPAM constructs were placed in simulated defects in osteochondral biopsies and cultured in vitro for 28 d. Biopsies containing hBMSC-alginate and hBMSC-fibrin were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice for 12 weeks. hBMSC-alginate constructs had significantly higher cartilage-related gene expression after 28 d of culture as well as significantly more safranin-O positive repair tissue after 12 weeks in vivo than hBMSC-fibrin constructs. Although initial experiments with hBMSC-hydrogel constructs suggested comparable results of hBMSC-alginate, hBMSC-fibrin and hBMSC-HA-pNIPAM constructs, culture in the osteochondral biopsy model in vitro as well as in vivo revealed differences, suggests that chondrogenesis of hBMSCs in an osteochondral environment is hydrogel-dependent.