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dc.contributor.authorCullen, Elizabeth
dc.contributor.authorEvans, David
dc.contributor.authorGriffin, Chris
dc.contributor.authorBurke, Padraig
dc.contributor.authorMannion, Rory
dc.contributor.authorBurns, Damien
dc.contributor.authorFlanagan, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorKellegher, Ann
dc.contributor.authorSchoeters, Greet
dc.contributor.authorGovarts, Eva
dc.contributor.authorBiot, Pierre
dc.contributor.authorCasteleyn, Ludwine
dc.contributor.authorCastaño, Argelia
dc.contributor.authorKolossa-Gehring, Marike
dc.contributor.authorEsteban, Marta
dc.contributor.authorSchwedler, Gerda
dc.contributor.authorKoch, Holger
dc.contributor.authorAngerer, Jürgen
dc.contributor.authorKnudsen, Lisbeth
dc.contributor.authorJoas, Reinhard
dc.contributor.authorJoas, Anke
dc.contributor.authorDumez, Birgit
dc.contributor.authorSepai, Ovnair
dc.contributor.authorExley, Karen
dc.contributor.authorAerts, Dominique
dc.identifier.citationCullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Griffin, Chris; Burke, Padraig; Mannion, Rory; Burns, Damien; Flanagan, Andrew; Kellegher, Ann; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Castaño, Argelia; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Esteban, Marta; Schwedler, Gerda; Koch, Holger; Angerer, Jürgen; Knudsen, Lisbeth; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dumez, Birgit; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Aerts, Dominique (2017). Urinary phthalate concentrations in mothers and their children in ireland: results of the democophes human biomonitoring study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14 (12),
dc.description.abstractBackground: Phthalates are chemicals which are widespread in the environment. Although the impacts on health of such exposure are unclear, there is evidence of a possible impact on the incidence of a diverse range of diseases. Monitoring of human exposure to phthalates is therefore important. This study aimed to determine the extent of phthalate exposure among mothers and their children in both rural and urban areas in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated concentrations. It formed part of the 'Demonstration of a study to Co-ordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale' (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. Methods: the concentration of phthalate metabolites were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. The median age of the children was 8 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information regarding lifestyle and environmental conditions of the children and mothers. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. Results: Phthalate metabolites were detected in all of the samples from both children and mothers. Concentrations were significantly higher in respondents from families with lower educational attainment and in those exposed to such items as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), fast food and personal care products (PCP). Conclusions: The study demonstrates that human biomonitoring for assessing exposure to phthalates can be undertaken in Ireland and that the exposure of the population is widespread. Further work will be necessary before the consequences of this exposure are understood.
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.relation.ispartofInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Ireland
dc.subjecthuman biomonitoring
dc.subjectendocrine disruptors
dc.subjecthuman exposure
dc.titleUrinary phthalate concentrations in mothers and their children in ireland: results of the democophes human biomonitoring study

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