The 0.1% of the population with glucokinase monogenic diabetes can be recognized by clinical characteristics in pregnancy: the atlantic diabetes in pregnancy cohort
Chakera, Ali J.
Hattersley, Andrew T.
Dunne, Fidelma P.
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Chakera, Ali J. Spyer, Gill; Vincent, Nicola; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Dunne, Fidelma P. (2014). The 0.1% of the population with glucokinase monogenic diabetes can be recognized by clinical characteristics in pregnancy: the atlantic diabetes in pregnancy cohort. Diabetes Care 37 (5), 1230-1236
OBJECTIVEIdentifying glucokinase monogenic diabetes (GCK-MODY) in pregnancy is important, as management is different from management for other forms of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and there is no increased maternal risk of type 2 diabetes. We calculated the population prevalence of GCK-MODY in pregnancy and determined the clinical characteristics that differentiate pregnant women with GCK-MODY from those with GDM.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe calculated the population prevalence of GCK-MODY in pregnancy by testing a subset of patients from the population-based Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy (Atlantic DIP) study (n = 5,500). We sequenced for GCK mutations in 247 women with a fasting glucose 5.1 mmol/L and 109 randomly selected control subjects with normal fasting glucose. Using data from the cases found and 40 previously identified GCK-MODY pregnancies, we analyzed whether clinical criteria could be used to differentiate GCK-MODY from GDM.RESULTSFour women with fasting glucose 5.1 mmol/L were diagnosed with GCK-MODY. No cases were identified with normal fasting glucose. The population prevalence of GCK-MODY is 1.1 in 1,000 (95% CI 0.3-2.9 in 1,000) and prevalence in GDM is 0.9% (95% CI 0.3-2.3). Fasting glucose and BMI significantly differentiate GCK-MODY from GDM (P &lt; 0.0001). Combined criteria of BMI &lt;25 kg/m(2) and fasting glucose 5.5 mmol/L has a sensitivity 68%, specificity 96%, and number needed to test of 2.7 women with GDM to find one case of GCK-MODY.CONCLUSIONSOur large population cohort of pregnant women tested estimates the population prevalence of GCK-MODY of 1.1 in 1,000. We have shown routine clinical criteria that can identify which women should be tested for GCK-MODY in pregnancy.