Electrochemiluminescence at bare and dna-coated graphite electrodes in 3d-printed fluidic devices
Bishop, Gregory W.
Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.
Rusling, James F.
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Bishop, Gregory W. Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Bist, Itti; Chen, Eric; Rusling, James F. (2016). Electrochemiluminescence at bare and dna-coated graphite electrodes in 3d-printed fluidic devices. ACS Sensors 1 (2), 197-202
Clear plastic fluidic devices with ports for incorporating electrodes to enable electrochemiluminescence (ECL) measurements were prepared using a low-cost, desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer based on stereolithography. Electrodes consisted of 0.5 mm pencil graphite rods and 0.5 mm silver wires inserted into commercially available 1/4 in -28 threaded fittings. A bioimaging system equipped with a CCD camera was used to measure ECL generated at electrodes and small arrays using 0.2 M phosphate buffer solutions containing tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate ([Ru(bpy)(3)](2+)) with 100 mM tri-n-propylamine (TPA) as the coreactant. ECL signals produced at pencil graphite working electrodes were linear with respect to [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) concentration for 9-900 mu M [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+). The detection limit was found to be 7 mu M using the CCD camera with exposure time set at 10 s. Electrode-to-electrode ECL signals varied by +/- 7.5%. Device performance was further evaluated using pencil graphite electrodes coated with multilayer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)/DNA films. In these experiments, ECL resulted from the reaction of [Ru(bpy)(3)](3+) with guanines of DNA. ECL produced at these thin-film electrodes was linear with respect to [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) concentration from 180 to 800 mu M. These studies provide the first demonstration of ECL measurements obtained using a 3D-printed closed-channel fluidic device platform. The affordable, high-resolution 3D printer used in these studies enables easy, fast, and adaptable prototyping of fluidic devices capable of incorporating electrodes for measuring ECL.