Harnessing hierarchical nano- and micro-fabrication technologies for musculoskeletal tissue engineering
Abbah, Sunny A.
Delgado, Luis M.
Biggs, Manus J.
Zeugolis, Dimitrios I.
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Abbah, Sunny A. Delgado, Luis M.; Azeem, Ayesha; Fuller, Kieran; Shologu, Naledi; Keeney, Michael; Biggs, Manus J.; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I. (2015). Harnessing hierarchical nano- and micro-fabrication technologies for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. Advanced Healthcare Materials 4 (16), 2488-2499
Cells within a tissue are able to perceive, interpret and respond to the biophysical, biomechanical, and biochemical properties of the 3D extracellular matrix environment in which they reside. Such stimuli regulate cell adhesion, metabolic state, proliferation, migration, fate and lineage commitment, and ultimately, tissue morphogenesis and function. Current scaffold fabrication strategies in musculoskeletal tissue engineering seek to mimic the sophistication and comprehensiveness of nature to develop hierarchically assembled 3D implantable devices of different geometric dimensions (nano-to macrometric scales) that will offer control over cellular functions and ultimately achieve functional regeneration. Herein, advances and shortfalls of bottom-up (self-assembly, freeze-drying, rapid prototype, electrospinning) and top-down (imprinting) scaffold fabrication approaches, specific to musculoskeletal tissue engineering, are discussed and critically assessed.