Multivariate relationships and spatial distribution of geochemical features of soils in jamaica
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Zhang, Chaosheng; Lalor, Gerald (2002). Multivariate relationships and spatial distribution of geochemical features of soils in jamaica. Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability 14 , 57-65
Concentrations of 31 chemical elements in 165 soil samples from the tropical island of Jamaica were analyzed during the island-wide soil survey. Multivariate outliers were detected and remedied for quality control of the database. Multivariate analyses including principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA), and a geographic information system (GIS) were applied to study the geochemical features of element associations and sample clusters. The results show that rare earth elements, most of the heavy metals and trace elements (including As, Al, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, La, Lu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn) are enriched in the bauxitic soils relative to the non-bauxitic soils, and closely correlated with one another. Negative correlations between the bauxite-enriched elements and the mobile alkali and alkaline earth elements including Ca, Sr, Mg and Na are observed, showing the opposite tendencies of enrichment of the immobile elements and leaching of the mobile elements during the soil formation processes. The halogen elements of Br and I are also relatively enriched in the bauxitic soils, but they appear to be rather affected by sea-spray. Copper has poor correlations with all the other elements, which is likely to be related to mineralization. Significantly different concentrations of the bauxite-enriched elements are observed between the bauxitic and non-bauxitic soils.